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Panda ant (Euspinolia Militaris)

The Euspinolia Militaris (also called panda ant – first described in 1938 in Chile) is a member of the Mutillidae family, part of the Hymenoptera order, which includes such as wasps, bees and ants. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Suborder Apocrita Superfamily Vespoidea Family Mutillidae Genus Euspinolia Anatomy While the coloration of the panda ant is …

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Giant panda

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; Chinese: 大熊猫; pinyin: dàxióngmāo), also known as the panda bear or simply the panda, is a bear native to south central China.

Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue is excitable, responding to stimulation and contracting to provide movement, and occurs as three major types: skeletal (voluntary) muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle in the heart.

Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants.


Hormones are chemical-signaling molecules, usually small proteins or steroids, secreted by endocrine cells that act to control or regulate specific physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction. For example, insulin is a protein hormone that helps regulate the blood glucose level.


The biosphere, also known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. Ecosphere is a planetary closed ecological system. In this global ecosystem, the various forms of energy and matter that constitute a given planet interact on a continual basis.


A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade but are paraphyletic concerning bees and ants.


Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in humans and other vertebrates and is comprised of monomers of glucose. Glycogen is the animal equivalent of starch and is a highly branched molecule usually stored in liver and muscle cells. Whenever blood glucose levels decrease, glycogen breaks down to release glucose in a process scientists call glycogenolysis.


A toxin (term derived from the word toxic, first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms (animals, plants or microbial organisms) that is harmful to some species. A biotoxin is a poison produced by the metabolic activity of certain living beings, such as bacteria. Toxins produced by fungi are called …

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Lipids include a diverse group of compounds that are largely nonpolar in nature. This is because they are hydrocarbons that include mostly nonpolar carbon–carbon or carbon–hydrogen bonds. Non-polar molecules are hydrophobic (“water fearing”), or insoluble in water. Lipids perform many different functions in a cell. Cells store energy for long-term use in the form of fats. …

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