Materialism

Materialism is the usually monistic philosophical conception according to which the only reality that can truly be said to exist is the matter and all that derives from its continuous transformation. This is to say that, fundamentally and substantially, all things have a material nature; that is, the foundation and substance of reality are material. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism …

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Hypothesis

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses; from the ancient Greek ὑπόθεσις hypothesis, composed of hypo, “under” and thesis, “position”, or supposition) is the premise underlying reasoning or a demonstration; in other words is a suggested explanation for an event, which one can test. Originally, the meaning of the word indicated a mathematical method capable of simplifying the calculations, or a plausible …

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Abstraction

The term abstraction derives from the Latin abstractio which in turn takes up the Greek one of “αφαίρεσις” (aphàiresis). Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon (removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics), selecting only the aspects which are …

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Absolute

Absolute means not limited by exceptions or conditions. What does not depend on another for its existence, therefore opposed to “conditioned,” “dependent,” and does not exclude the relationship for which another would depend on it. The term is used in many different ways in mathematics, physics, philosophy, and everyday speech. Absolute space and time, which, in …

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Quantitative reasoning

Quantitative reasoning (QR) is defined as the habit of mind to apply data and quantitative tools to a wide range of problems in personal, professional, and public contexts. The ability to think quantitatively clearly plays a central role in undergraduate education. By one definition, quantitative reasoning (QR) is the application of basic mathematics skills, such …

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning or abductive reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion; is a form of logical thinking that uses related observations to arrive at a general conclusion. Induction can be strong or weak. If an inductive …

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning or deduction is the process of thinking from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion (the type of logic used in hypothesis-based science); is a form of logical thinking that uses a general principle or law to forecast specific results. In science, deduction is used to reach conclusions believed to be true. A hypothesis …

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Abductive reasoning

Abductive reasoning is a form of logical inference typically begins with an observation or an incomplete set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation. This process, unlike deductive reasoning, yields a plausible conclusion but does not positively verify it. Abductive conclusions are thus qualified as having a remnant of uncertainty or …

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Reason

The reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, judgments, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. The reasoning is a …

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Empiricism

Empiricism (from Latin empiricus, der. from the Greek ἐμπειρία, empeirìa, ‘experience’), is the philosophical movement, born in the second half of the seventeenth century in England, according to which human knowledge derives exclusively from the senses or from experience. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism It opposes ‘innatism’ and ‘rationalism’, which derive knowledge by deduction from rational principles evident a priori, …

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