Sociology

Sociology is the study of groups and group interactions, societies, and social interactions, from small and personal groups to very large groups. A group of people who live in a defined geographic area, who interact with one another, and who share a common culture is what sociologists call a society. Sociologists study all aspects and levels …

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Perception

While our sensory receptors are constantly collecting information from the environment, it is ultimately how we interpret that information that affects how we interact with the world. Perception refers to the way sensory information is organized, interpreted, and consciously experienced. Perception involves both bottom-up and top-down processing. Bottom-up processing refers to the fact that perceptions are built from …

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Consciousness

Consciousness describes our awareness of internal and external stimuli. Awareness of internal stimuli includes feeling pain, hunger, thirst, sleepiness, and being aware of our thoughts and emotions. Awareness of external stimuli includes seeing the light from the sun, feeling the warmth of a room, and hearing the voice of a friend. States of consciousness vary over the …

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology, and specifically, the evolutionary psychology of humans, has enjoyed a resurgence in recent decades. To be subject to evolution by natural selection, the behavior must have a significant genetic cause. In general, we expect all human cultures to express a behavior if it is caused genetically since the genetic differences among human groups are …

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Biopsychology (behavioral neuroscience)

Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals. While biological psychology is a broad field, many biological psychologists want to understand how the structure and function of the nervous system are related …

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Mood

The mood is an affective state, which differs from emotions and feelings for being less specific, less intense and less likely to be provoked by a recent stimulus or event. Etymologically, the word mood derives from the Old English mōd which denoted military courage but could also refer to a person’s humor, temper, or disposition at a particular …

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Emotion

Emotions are mental and physiological states associated with psychological changes, internal or external stimuli, natural or learned. According to most modern theories, emotions are a multicomponent process, that is articulated in several components and with an evolving temporal course. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, creativity and motivation. In evolutionary or Darwinian terms, …

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Psychology

Psychology is the science that studies mental states and its emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral processes in their conscious and unconscious components, through the use of the scientific method and/or relying on a subjective intrapersonal perspective. It also deals with the study and treatment of psychic functions both in conditions of well-being and suffering or mental distress, …

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