Chemistry

Amorphous solid

In amorphous solids (literally “solids without form” or non-crystalline solids) the particles do not have a repeating lattice pattern. They are also called “pseudo solids.” Amorphous materials have an internal structure made of interconnected structural blocks. These blocks can be similar to the basic structural units found in the corresponding crystalline phase of the same …

Amorphous solid Learn more »

Metallic solid

Metallic solids (consisting of a metallic bond) are formed exclusively by electropositive atoms (for example sodium, copper, aluminum), tending to give up their electrons which, however, having no electronegative atoms to join with, remain free. The set of properties of metals suggests a structure in which the crystalline solid is made up of metal cations, …

Metallic solid Learn more »

Covalent network solid

Covalent network solids there are no individual molecules, the atoms in the crystal lattice are all directly linked by covalent bonds, so that in the crystal no single molecules can be identified (the crystal can be seen as a single macromolecule); are included crystals of diamond, silicon, some other nonmetals, and some covalent compounds such …

Covalent network solid Learn more »

Molecular solid

Molecular solids are composed of discrete molecules. The cohesive forces that bind the molecules together are van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole interactions, quadrupole interactions, π-π interactions, hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding, London dispersion forces, and in some molecular solids, coulombic interactions. The strengths of the attractive forces between the units present in different crystals vary widely, …

Molecular solid Learn more »

Ionic solid

The crystal lattice of ionic solids consists of monoatomic or polyatomic ions held together by intense electrostatic interactions of the Coulomb type. These, by their nature, are not directional and therefore the ions of opposite charge are attracted independently of their spatial location: therefore, no single molecular units are recognizable. In ionic solids, cations and …

Ionic solid Learn more »

Crystal (crystalline solid)

Crystalline solids consist of atoms, ions and molecules arranged in a definite and repeating three-dimensional pattern in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions in a definite repeating pattern. Unlike amorphous solids that melt at a range of temperatures, crystalline solids have definite melting points. Crystalline solids include …

Crystal (crystalline solid) Learn more »

Magnetic liquid

A magnetic liquid is a substance containing in suspension particles of magnetic material with dimensions in the order of one-thousandth of a millimeter; sometimes it is also called ferrofluid. Characteristic of these liquids is the very high sensitivity to magnetic fields, this because each particle in suspension in the liquid has its magnetic moment, i.e., it behaves …

Magnetic liquid Learn more »

Ionic liquid

Ionic liquids (IL) are compounds made up exclusively of ions and their combinations, but unlike the salts, they appear in liquid form at room temperature (or at temperatures close to the latter) even without the presence of a molecular solvent. A generic definition of ionic liquids is that which describes them as salts that have melting …

Ionic liquid Learn more »

Industrial gas

Industrial gases are the gaseous materials (at ambient temperature and pressure) that are specifically manufactured for use in industry (which include oil and gas, petrochemicals, chemicals, power, mining, steelmaking, metals, environmental protection, medicine, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food, water, fertilizers, nuclear power, electronics, and aerospace). They are chemicals which can be an elemental gas or a chemical compound …

Industrial gas Learn more »

Real gas

Real gases are non-hypothetical gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they adhere to gas laws. An attempt to produce an equation that describes the behavior of gases more realistically is represented by the equation of real gases. The corrections made to the equation of perfect gases are two: the proper volume of the …

Real gas Learn more »

Scroll to Top