Elemental gases. Inert gas. Noble gas. Perfect gas (ideal gas). Real gas. Industrial gas.


Crystalline solid. Ionic solid. Molecular solid. Covalent network solid. Metallic solid. Amorphous solid. Supersolid.


Float glass. Reflective & coated glass. Laminated glass. Toughened and heat treated glass. Glass recycling. Superglass.


Absorption band. Absorption spectroscopy. Absorption spectrum. Spectral line (absorption line).

Antibonding molecular orbital

An antibonding molecular orbital is a type of chemical bond given by the overlap of two half-full molecular orbitals. This kind of bond weakens the chemical bond between two atoms and helps to raise the energy of the molecule relative to the separated atoms. Such an orbital has one or more nodes in the bonding region between …

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that results from the electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions that are typically produced by the transfer of electrons between metallic and nonmetallic atoms. Compounds composed of ions are called ionic compounds (or salts), and their constituent ions are held together by ionic bonds: electrostatic forces of attraction …

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Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that rises from the attractive electrostatic force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions. It may be described as the sharing of free electrons among a structure of positively charged ions (cations).

Covalent bond

Covalent bond is a type of chemical bonding formed between two atoms when both have similar tendencies to attract electrons to themselves (i.e., when both atoms have identical or fairly similar ionization energies and electron affinities). Compounds that contain covalent bonds exhibit different physical properties than ionic compounds. Because the attraction between molecules, which are electrically …

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase.

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