Elastomer is defined as a macromolecular material (natural or synthetic polymer) which subjected to high deformation (stretching with elongation up to 5 or 10 times the initial length) within a specific temperature range after the applied stress removal returns to the shape and the original size.
The main chemical characteristics of the elastomers are:
- consist of linear molecules with a high molecular weight;
- presence along the polymeric molecule of reactive groups that allow cross-linking (equivalent to vulcanization);
- ability to accept reinforcing charges and to add satisfactory mechanical properties after cross-linking.
Elastomers, depending on their nature, may possess different mechanical characteristics such as:
- flexibility at room temperature;
- negligible permanent deformation;
- high breaking load;
- abrasion resistance;
- resistance to high temperatures;
- tear resistance;
- resistance to oxidation and ozone;
- resistance to aging and light;
- resistance to solvents and oil.
- Thermoplastic elastomer