Thermodynamic temperature (kelvin). Curie temperature (or Curie point). Critical temperature. Temperature gradient.


Heat transfer. Heat flux. Heat capacity. Latent heat of fusion. Latent heat of condensation. Latent heat of sublimation. Latent heat of vaporization.


Sound pressure (acoustic pressure). Sound intensity. Sound propagation speed. Infrasound. Ultrasound (ultrasonics). Soundproofing.


Friction coefficient. Static friction. Kinetic or dynamic friction. Sliding friction. Rolling friction.


Antiferromagnetism is a characteristic property of some materials such as manganese, chromium, hematite, oxides MnO2, FeO, CoO, etc. (called antiferromagnetic materials); in these materials, contrary to what happens for ferromagnetic materials (in which the configuration of minimum energy occurs for parallel spins), the interaction between the atoms is such as to create a configuration of minimum energy when …

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Ferrimagnetism is a type of permanent magnetism that occurs in some crystals when the magnetic moments of nearby ions tend to align antiparallel: it is, therefore, a type of antiferromagnetism; this situation occurs mainly in compounds known as ferrites. The term ferrimagnetism was originally proposed by Néel to describe the magnetic ordering phenomena in ferrites, in which iron …

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Ferromagnetism is the property of some materials, called ferromagnetic materials, to magnetize very intensely under the action of an external magnetic field and to remain magnetized for a long time when the field is canceled, thus becoming magnets. This property is maintained only below a certain temperature, called Curie temperature, above which the material behaves like …

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A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. The name derives from the Greek μαγνήτης λίθος (magnétes líthos), that is “Magnesia stone,” from the name of a place in Asia Minor, known since ancient times for the huge deposits of magnetite. A permanent magnet is an object made from a material that is …

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials are characterized at the atomic level by magnetic dipoles that align with the applied magnetic field, being weakly attracted to it.

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