Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon that manifests itself with a force by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Gravity is the first force to be postulated as an action-at-a-distance force, that is, objects exert a gravitational force on one another without physical contact and that force falls to zero only at an infinite distance. Earth exerts a gravitational force on you, but so do our Sun, the Milky Way galaxy, and the billions of galaxies, like those shown above, which are so distant that we cannot see them with the naked eye.
The gravitational interaction establishes the force of gravity on Earth and the attraction between the planets, phenomena described in good approximation by the law of universal gravitation. Two bodies attract each other in a directly proportional way to the product of their masses, in other words, the gravitational force is proportional to the mass, unlike the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge of a body has in general no relation to its mass. The most complete understanding of gravity as an expression of space-time geometry is due to general relativity.
The history of gravitation
The earliest philosophers wondered why objects naturally tend to fall toward the ground. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) believed that it was the nature of rocks to seek Earth and the nature of fire to seek the Heavens. Brahmagupta (598~665 CE) postulated that Earth was a sphere and that objects possessed a natural affinity for it, falling toward the center from wherever they were located. The motions of the Sun, our Moon, and the planets have been studied for thousands of years as well. These motions were described with amazing accuracy by Ptolemy (90-168 CE), whose method of epicycles described the paths of the planets as circles within circles. However, there is little evidence that anyone connected the motion of astronomical bodies with the motion of objects falling to Earth—until the seventeenth century.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) is generally credited as being the first to challenge Ptolemy’s geocentric (Earth-centered) system and suggest a heliocentric system, in which the Sun is at the center of the solar system. This idea was supported by the incredibly precise naked-eye measurements of planetary motions by Tycho Brahe and their analysis by Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei. Kepler showed that the motion of each planet is an ellipse (the first of his three laws, discussed in Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion), and Robert Hooke (the same Hooke who formulated Hooke’s law for springs) intuitively suggested that these motions are due to the planets being attracted to the Sun. However, it was Isaac Newton who connected the acceleration of objects near Earth’s surface with the centripetal acceleration of the Moon in its orbit about Earth.
Finally, in Einstein’s Theory of Gravity, we look at the theory of general relativity proposed by Albert Einstein in 1916. His theory comes from a vastly different perspective, in which gravity is a manifestation of mass warping space and time. The consequences of his theory gave rise to many remarkable predictions, essentially all of which have been confirmed over the many decades following the publication of the theory (including the 2015 measurement of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes).
- Gravitational energy
- Gravitational field
- University Physics Volume 1. OpenStax. Authors: William Moebs, Samuel J. Ling, Jeff Sanny. https://openstax.org/books/university-physics-volume-1/pages/13-1-newtons-law-of-universal-gravitation