country is considered in political geography and international politics as a political division within a certain geographical entity. When referring to the sovereign territory, the term is most commonly associated with the concepts of state, nation, or government. It is often referred to as the land of an individual’s birth, residence, or citizenship.

Identifies a territory within certain boundaries, governed by one law in a comprehensive political organization. Countries are classified by observing their characteristics and grouping similar ones.

The word country comes from Old French contrée, which derives from Vulgar Latin (terra) contrata (“(land) lying opposite”; “(land) spread before”), derived from contra (“against, opposite”). It most likely entered the English language after the Franco-Norman invasion during the 11th century.

Throughout history, humans have chosen to live together (originally in clans or tribes, and then in towns and villages, and more recently in cities). Eventually, groups of towns, villages, and cities living near each other would agree to work together and live under similar rules. Some countries have such complicated histories of war and conquest that they are home to many different groups of people who have their own separate beliefs, languages, and customs.

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